Crypto, Germans & Spanish in Britain, Fenestrae

In the spirit of Today I Learned on reddit, here are some interesting things I learned today:

Crypto
Cryptosporidium spp. are a genus of common parasitic protozoa that cause intestinal, tracheal, or pulmonary cryptosporidiosis or “crypto.” It is so common the FDA estimates 80% of the US population has been infected at least once in their lifetime. The most common symptom in healthy adults is watery diarrhea lasting 2 – 4 days. There is no known effective treatment. Immunocompromised individuals may have crypto for life and it may contribute to death. Crytpo is not to be confused with cryptococcosis, a different fungal parasitic disease more common in the tropics. Cryptosporidium spp. exhibit a similar life cycle to the Plasmodium spp. that cause malaria, called the Apicomplexan life cycle.

Germans and Spanish in Britain
A German ascended the British throne in 1714. His reign led to the birth of the modern cabinet system with the first Prime Minister of Great Britain. Also during his reign, Spain briefly invaded Scotland.

Source: Filtration Membrane
Source: Filtration Membrane

Fenestrae
Fenestrae is Latin for windows. In histology it is used to describe small pores in endothelial cells of capillaries that allow for rapid exchange of molecules. Fenestrated capillaries are notable for the functioning of the glomerulus that performs the first step in filtering of the blood and intestinal villi that absorb nutrients.

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